|dc.description.abstract||The effectiveness of development activities in water and other sectors can be improved
through a broad-based analysis of livelihoods and the factors that influence them,
including the wider ‘vulnerability context’ in which people live. It is also important to
ascertain the role that water resources play in combination with other ‘assets’ to support
economic and human activities. A research study was carried out between December
2009 and April 2010. Its aim was to assess the impact made by the water supply and
sanitation programmes implemented by Zvishavane Water Project and World Vision
Zimbabwe in Chivi District of Zimbabwe since 2005. Wards 7, 9 and 15 were studied.
Ward 9 and 15 had water supply and sanitation programmes, while Ward 7 had no water
supply and sanitation programme since the IRWSSP. This allowed comparison of
livelihoods between the wards which had programmes and that which did not. The
impact was assessed in terms of design, functionality, usage and livelihoods. The design,
functionality and usage were assessed using design criteria obtained from literature,
while the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework (SLF) was used to assess impact made on
the livelihoods of the rural poor.
The methods used to collect data were household survey, in which 90 households were
interviewed per ward in the three wards. Focus group discussions with men, women,
youths and water point committees in each ward were done as well as field visits and
observations. Key informant interviews were done with staff from Agricultural Extension
(AGRITEX), District Development Staff (DDF), Ministry of Health and the Rural
District Council (RDC). Six school headmasters were interviewed to ascertain the impact
made by the programmes and diarrheal and cholera disease prevalent records were
obtained from three health centres.
The results obtained show that Wards 9 and 15 had a better choice of water technologies
(Elephant Pump and Windlass respectively and B-type bush pump for both), which were
low cost and therefore better designs than Ward 7, which only had the B-type bush pump.
Functionality and usage was high in the three wards. Impact has been made by water
supply and sanitation programmes implemented by ZWP and WVZ in Ward 9 and 15
compared to Ward 7 which has not had a programme. The physical, natural and human
capitals were more supported by water supply and sanitation programmes, than the social
and financial capitals.
It was concluded that the design of water and sanitation facilities influences functionality
and use of the facilities. This subsequently affects the impact made by the facilities. The
financial and social capitals are not rooted firmly in water supply and sanitation
programmes, unlike the physical, natural and human capitals. The study therefore
recommends that NGOs should implement, with support from Government, more of low
cost technologies, which communities can look after using locally available materials as
this will ensure sustainability and therefore sustained impact. Extensive geological
surveys should be done before water point development to ensure that wells have a
greater depth and therefore yield more. This will enable use of water for productive
purposes which encourage continued functionality of water points, thereby ensuring