Analysis Of Institutional Mechanisms That Support Community Response to Impacts of Floods and Drought in the Middle-Zambezi River Basin, Zimbabwe
Muhonda, Park Mnm
MetadataShow full item record
In recent years, the frequency of droughts has been increasing in Southern Africa. In areas such as the middle Zambezi Valley’s Manyame catchment, Zimbabwe, floods are also a frequent occurrence. Increase in the frequency of drought and flood is partly linked to climate change. Floods and droughts negatively impact on livelihoods of the poor. Both drought and floods reduce crop yields and can also affect livestock, which are the main sources of livelihood in the catchment. In response to these climatic events, governments within Southern Africa have formulated policies which try to mitigate the impacts of droughts and floods. This study analyses the institutional mechanisms at the local and national level which try to mitigate the impact of floods and droughts. The study employed focus group discussions, key informant in-depth interviews, and semi structured household interviews to gather primary data. Secondary data sources such as policy and legislation documents and operational manuals were also reviewed. Data analysis was done using a thematic approach and social network analysis using UCINET 6. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS 13.0. The study found that the institutional framework that has been developed at the national and local level to support communities in the study area in response to the impacts of floods and droughts comprises mainly of National Civil Protection Policy, National Policy on Drought Management, Civil Protection Act of 1989 complemented by sector legislations, Civil Protection Organisation and traditional institutions. The study found that the institutional framework does not effectively strengthen disaster management mechanisms in Kanyemba. Local institutional structures in Kanyemba lack material, financial, and appropriate training and skills to undertake floods and drought management activities to effectively mitigate the impacts of floods and drought. There are inadequate observatories in Kanyemba for monitoring meteorological and hydrological conditions to accurately forecast floods and drought. In addition the community has difficulties accessing floods and drought early warning in time due inadequate communication systems. The study concludes that the capability of the institutional framework in Kanyemba to effectively support community management of floods and drought is limited.