AN ASSESSMENT OF GENDER MAINSTREAMING IN WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT: A CASE STUDY OF MKOJI SUB CATCHMENT IN USANGU PLAINS, TANZANIA.
LUSUVA, ELINA ADRIAN
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From the late 1980s onwards, the Gender and Development (GAD) approach was developed with the objective of removing disparities in social, economic, and political balances between women and men as a pre-condition for achieving people-centred development. Much of the work in the water sector today is informed by this approach. However, there are many perspectives in this approach and no one plan for enabling equality and equity in water resources management. The many different ways in which water is used and managed often has distinct implications for men and women users. Use, access and control over natural resources such as land and water, and tasks, means and responsibilities are highly gender- specific and may vary considerably for different water uses. However, gender awareness varies widely across the water sector, and no concerned attempts have been made in the past to consider the gender perspectives in an integrated way. The major aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which gender is being mainstreamed in water resources management in Mkoji Sub-catchment in Tanzania. The specific objectives were to analyse, explore and assess the uses, accessibility, participation and management of water resources, institutional arrangements on Water Resources Management (WRM) and an assessment of the Tanzania water policy with respect to gender mainstreaming in Mkoji Sub-catchment (MSC). Data presented in this study were collected using both qualitative and quantitative methods; structured questionnaires, focus group discussions, participatory observation and key informant’s interviews. Quantitative data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) and the qualitative data were analysed using thematic approach. The major findings of the study were; there is no equitable accessibility and uses of water from the irrigation canals, both formal and informal institutions are available in the management of water resources but gender mainstreaming has been ignored as women and men do not participate equally in WRM. The gender provisions of Tanzania water policy have not been implemented neither are these understood by most of the people in the lower MSC and as result most of the villagers do not know their water rights. The study concluded that; gender mainstreaming issues are neglected and misunderstood by most of the people in MSC. The legal framework for WRM does not address issues of gender, but provides the foundation for the involvement of both men and women in water resources management though its emphasis on the stakeholder participation and on the institutional level; there is limited understanding of the gender mainstreaming issues among individuals in MSC. There is unequal participation of men and women in all aspects of WRM. There is a need of introducing new legal framework on gender mainstreaming and water resources management. The study recommends that it is essential to advocate for the direct involvement of both women and men at all levels: national governments; regional/local governments and it is important to mobilize and encourage women to get involved in technical training while at the same time breaking the myth of female inferiority and enhance educative programmes to women and men on gender partnership where both of them have equal roles in MSC.
Description on water sector and gender issues
Gender and agricultural water use
Gender aspects and water projects
Gender implications of water resources management principles
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