Relationship between self-care practices and readmissions among adults aged 40-80 years with chronic heart failure at a Central Hospital In Zimbabwe
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Readmissions for chronic heart failure are a major concern for medical surgical nursing and can be preventable in at least 40% of the cases (Robert & Bowling, 2001). Self-care practices could influence outcomes of chronic heart failure patients such as readmissions (Lee, 2009). The purpose of this study was to describe as well as examine the relationship between self-care practices and readmission among chronic heart failure patients. The theoretical model used to guide this study was Orem’s self-care model. A non-experimental descriptive correlational study design was used. A simple random sample of 65 adults aged 40 to 80 years with chronic heart failure was selected from the outpatients’ clinics. An instrument comprising of 3 sections namely the demographic data section, the readmissions section (RS) and the chronic heart failure self-care practices section (CHFSCP) was administered using the face-to-face interview technique. The relationship of self-care practices and readmissions was analysed using the inferential statistics. Data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). There was a negative linear relationship between the independent and the dependent variables (r=-.436, p<.01). This means that as self-care practices improve, the number of readmissions decreases. The effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable as indicated by R²=.191 (F=14.828, p<.01). This meant that self-care practices explained 19% of the variance observed in the readmissions. The mean score for the chronic heart failure self-care practices section was 46.5 and 33(50.8%) subjects had total scores below this mean. Medical surgical nursing practice should adopt protocols that support good self-care practices and the protocols should take an individualized approach to maximize reduction of readmissions among chronic heart failure patients.