The food security environment nexus in urban agriculture in Harare.
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Perceptions about urban agriculture in Zimbabwe have changed significantly since 1980. Before independence urban agriculture was generally prohibited. In Harare minor concessions were made in relation to land set aside for migrant labour. The main reason for the prohibition was fear of environmental degradation. After independence, land was set aside for a few co-operatives in the capital city, mostly as a means to gamer political support (Mbiba, 1995). For example, in the 1980s the City Council, at the behest o f central government, gave land to co-operatives in some residential areas. During this time, a tension existed between the promotion o f urban agriculture for political patronage and its discouragement for more altruistic reasons relating to protection o f the environment (Mushayavanhu, 2003). In time, urban agriculture became de facto government policy due to increasing urban poverty. It is estimated that between 1995 and 2001 incomes in Harare decreased by 28% (Zimbabwe Human Development Report, 2003). Critics o f the City Council point out that the authorities only accepted the reality of urban agriculture two decades after independence because o f its potential relating to poverty reduction, local economic development and sustainable urban development (UCAZ, 2002).
Additional Citation InformationMachiridza, R. & Manzungu, E. (2008). The food security environment nexus in urban agriculture in Harare, Towards a new water creed: water management, governance and livelihood in Southern Africa, Chpt. 10, pages 81-88.