Relationship between knowledge levels of high active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and adherence levels of HAART among HIV positive pregnant women aged 15 to 49 years attending antenatal care at Marondera provincial hospital, Family Child Health department, Zimbabwe
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Vertical transmission of HIV from mother to child remains a problem in Zimbabwe and the world over. HAART adherence rate of at least 95% is essential and it is noted that it can reduce vertical transmission by less than 1%. However such high adherence rates could only be achieved when HIV positive pregnant women have optimum knowledge regarding HAART. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between knowledge of HAART and adherence levels among HIV positive pregnant women aged 15 to 49 years attending antenatal care Marondera Provincial Hospital Family Child Care Department. A descriptive correlation study design was used to guide the study. A sample of 80 participants was selected using systematic sampling. HIV positive pregnant women meeting the inclusion criteria participated in the study. Data was collected through interviews with the aid of a structured interview schedule. Pender’s Health Promotion Model was used to guide the study. Frequency distribution, measures of central tendency and dispersion and inferential statistics were used to present findings in relation to the demographic variables, HAART adherence practices and knowledge regarding HAART. Pearson correlation coefficient test was (r = 0.197 p – value 0.081). The results showed that a weak positive non-significant correlation existed between adherence to HAART and knowledge regarding HAART. The findings of this study indicated that only 25% of the respondents had high levels of knowledge regarding HAART and only 17.5% had high levels of adherence hence one can safely infer that the moderate to low levels of knowledge in the majority of the respondents 75% could have a bearing on suboptimal adherence. The study recommends intensification of health education and counseling on HAART inorder to empower HIV+ pregnant women with relevant knowledge that could lead to attainment of optimum HAART adherence. Major challenges facing respondents on HAART were issues regarding disclosure for 33.3% and stigma and discrimination 23.1%. This points to need for midwives to address these important psychosocial barriers to optimum adherence by not only harnessing male participation in PMTCT issues but also through community involvement.
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