AN ANALYSIS OF THE RELEVANCE OF THE PRINCIPLE OF SOVEREIGNTY IN 21ST CENTURY AFRICA. THE CASE OF SUDAN.
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The whole study is premised on the assumption that the sovereignty of Sudan has been eroded due to the failure by the government to protect the Christian Africans in the South from persecution by the Muslim Arabs in the North. The concept of sovereignty has changed meaning overtime and states in turn were required by the international system to shift their application of sovereignty in line with the new meaning of sovereignty. The study explores the abuse of sovereignty by African states, notably Sudan which has attracted attention from the international community to intervene because of the massive loss of human life. Most of Africa has been riddled by tribal conflict, civil wars, coups, counter coups, dictatorship, terrorism, ethnicity, religious differences, border disputes, human rights abuse, use of child soldiers and bad governance. The problem has emanated from the failure of governments to treat sovereignty as a responsibility not as a weapon to suppress the people within a society. Thus, the main problem in Sudan has been that of religious difference, the country failed to unite the two religions of Christianity and Muslim together. Instead, the Christians have suffered at the hands of the Muslims who have benefitted by the support of the Arab dominated government. However, the United Nations intervened in the crisis through the Responsibility to Protect Principle as acts of genocide became imminent in Sudan. In a nutshell, Sudan lost its sovereignty as the international community suspended its sovereignty. The sovereignty of Sudan had become irrelevant as the nation failed to uphold the virtues of the concept.