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Title: A comparative study on the influence of formal and non-formal career guidance on career realisation by secondary school students
Authors: Chifamba, Constance Thesis DPhil Doctor of Philosophy Zindi, Fred
Hapanyengwi, Oswald Education Foundations Faculty of Education University of Zimbabwe Zimbabwe
Keywords: career guidance
career realisation levels
formal career guidance
non-formal career guidance
Issue Date: Nov-2016
Citation: Chifamba, C. (2016). A comparative study on the influence of formal and non-formal career guidance on the realisation by secondary school students (Unpublished Doctoral thesis). University of Zimbabwe, Harare.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare two approaches to career guidance, formal and non-formal career guidance, so as to improve guidance programmes and raise career satisfaction and career realisation level of employees. A causal comparative survey was conducted in Harare. The researcher purposefully selected 93 participants, then employees in four different employing institutions at the time the research was conducted. The basis for the selection of the research participants is that they had gone through Ordinary level education at a secondary school in Zimbabwe where they were influenced by either of the two or both types of career guidance. Each participant completed a 45-item, closed form questionnaire indicating his/her perceptions about the career guidance he/she had received and how satisfied they felt about their careers. The results were analysed using SPSS, 20.0. A Chi-square Test was carried out to compare the relative strengths of the two major sources of influence, formal and non-formal career guidance. The focus of the Chi-square test was on comparing the observed and expected numbers of participants influenced by each of the sources of career guidance. The Chi-square test results indicated that there is a significant difference in the strengths of the influences of the two groups. A One- Way Analysis of Variance was carried out to compare the means of career realisation levels of the groups under study. The ANOVA results indicated that there was no significant difference between the career realisation levels of employees influenced by formal career guidance and those influenced by non-formal career guidance. Although formal career guidance seemed less convincing to attract many students, it seems to be associated with relatively higher career realisation levels because it provides relevant career information to the students before they make the career decisions. On the other hand, non-formal career guidance attracted almost half of the participants mainly because it provides sustainable financial and social support to the student during this transition period between school and employment. However, non-formal career guidance was associated with the limitation of lack of relevant information on career awareness and other career preparatory information. The participants influenced by non-formal career guidance reported relatively lower career realisation levels. About one third of the participants reported to have been influenced by both formal and non-formal career guidance and they indicated that they experience moderately high career realisation levels. This research study has shed more light as to why some employees seem not satisfied with their careers. Either they did not directly participate in choosing the career (as in the case of formal career guidance) or they selected the career before they had adequate information about the career (as in non-formal career guidance). The study indicated that there are strengths and weaknesses associated with each of the two approaches of providing career guidance. Adopting the strengths of each of these approaches is likely to maximize the career realisation levels of more students. From the findings of this study the researcher recommends that a collaboration of the two (formal and non-formal career guidance) be implemented in order for most students to achieve optimal career realisation levels when they enter their careers.
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Education e-Theses Collection

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